Here are eight ways women can strengthen their bones and reduce the incidence of damage and fractures:
- Get vital nutrients: Maintain a healthy diet that provides bone-building nutrients, including potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, calcium, and vitamin D.
- Exercise: Get at least 30 minutes of bone-strengthening activity most days. Include both weight-bearing activities, like running or brisk walking, and resistance exercise.
- Don’t smoke: Smokers lose bone faster and have higher fracture rates.
- Know your risk: Most guidelines recommend osteoporosis screening through bone mineral density (BMD) testing starting at age 65—earlier for women who have health conditions or take medications that increase risk.
- Consider bone-preserving drugs: Postmenopausal women who’ve had a fracture or received a BMD score of –2.5 or worse should take an osteoporosis drug. Women with scores of –2.0 to –2.5 should consider medication.
- Be aware of the depression connection: Research has found links between depression and bone loss. For example, women with a history of major depression have lower bone density and higher levels of cortisol, a hormone related to bone loss. If you’re being treated for depression, ask your clinician about whether you should have a BMD test.
- Maintain a healthy weight: Weighing less than 127 pounds or having a body mass index under 21 is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Also, if you lose weight during the menopausal transition, you’re more likely to lose bone. Avoid ultra-low-calorie diets and diets that eliminate whole food groups.
- Avoid falls: Keep floors clear of tripping hazards, make sure stairways and entrances are well lit, and add grab bars to your bathtub or shower.
Source: Harvard Women’s Health Watch
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